Documentation Guides


MLA in-text citations are made with a combination of signal phrases and parenthetical references. A signal phrase introduces information taken from a source (a quotation, summary, paraphrase, or fact); usually the signal phrase includes the author's name. The parenthetical reference comes after the cited material, often at the end of the sentence. It includes at least a page number (except for unpaginated sources, such as those found online). The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, 8th ed. (2016).

1. The NWACC College library has several good MLA files that can be of great help at


2. The Purdue Online Writing Lab shows how to be up-to-date in MLA documentation style:
                  MLA 8th edition Powerpoint overview
                  MLA in-text citations: the basics
                  MLA Works Cited page: Basic Format
                  MLA Sample Works Cited page
                  MLA Sample Paper


3. The Modern Language Association has posted links on its home page to help writers learn the new
    8t\h edition MLA style guidelines:

What is New?

Works Cited Quick Guide:

Sample Papers:

Formatting a Research Paper:

MLA Practice Template (PDF):

APA's in-text citations provide at least the author's last name and the year of publication. For direct quotations and some paraphrases, a page number is given as well. The guidelines presented here are consistent with advice given in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th ed. (2010).

  Also, see the NWACC Library Research Guide for APA Style.

            And see the Purdue OWL APA Sample Paper

In Chicago style, superscript numbers in the text of the paper refer readers to notes with corresponding numbers either at the foot of the page (footnotes) or at the end of the paper (endnotes). A bibliography is often required as well; it appears at the end of the paper and gives publication information for all the works cited in the notes.

Also, see the NWACC Library Research Guide for Chicago Style.

The Congress of Science Editors or Congress of Biology Editors guidelines presented here from the University of Wisconsin are consistent with advice given in Scientific Style and Format: The CSE Manual for Authors, Editors, and Publishers, 7th ed. (2006).

See a CSE Style Guide from Galludet University

This resource covers American Sociological Association (ASA) style and includes information about manuscript formatting, in-text citations, formatting the references page, and accepted manuscript writing style. The bibliographical format described here is taken from the American Sociological Association (ASA) Style Guide, 5th edition.
              See the American Sociological Association Style Guide at Purdue OWL

Also, see Quick Tips for ASA Style

The Writing Workshop's guide to writing an I-Search research paper